copper is refined from ores in the ground either through underground or open-pit mines. most of the copper ores mined today are oxide or sulfide ores. extraction of sulfide ores is covered in more detail in copper mining and extraction: sulfide ores 11 14 but is introduced here because an important by-product of this process is used for
concentration of ore: the ore is crushed into a fine powder and a suspension is created in water. to this are added collectors and froth stabilizers. collectors pine oils fatty acids etc increase the non-wettability of the metal part of the ore and allow it to form froth and froth stabilizers cresols aniline etc sustain the froth.
copper applications in metallurgy of copper and copper alloys. the known reserves of higher-grade ore in the world amount to nearly 1 billion tons of copper. at the present rate of mine production which is about 13.9 million tons 12.5 million metric tons a year known reserves of copper could be depleted in about 65 years.
copper mining and extraction process flow chart. this solution is tapped off from the bottom of the pad and placed into big tanks with steel plates an electrical current is passed from the tank to the steel which is then electroplated with pure copper. this process as the advantage of avoiding the smelting and refining stages required for sulfide ores.
concentration of ores. an ore of a metal is an impure source this means other than the metal it consists of many other impurities such as sand grit clay rocks etc. these impurities are collectively known as gangue. gangue is generally commercial valueless and we must separate it from the ore.
copper mines are only set up where there is more than 5 kg of copper per tonne of rock 0.5% by mass . ideally the figure should be closer to 2%. the world’s largest copper ore deposits are found in chile on the west coast of south america. this is due to the volcanic activity that is part of the process that created the andes mountain chain.
the copper ores are mostly found in the north of india. the extraction of copper also involves many steps. the ore used for extraction is copper pyrites which is crushed concentrated and then heated in the presence of air.
chalcopyrite also known as copper pyrites and similar sulphide ores are the commonest ores of copper. the ores typically contain low percentages of copper and have to be concentrated by for example froth flotation before refining.
recovery rate of copper oxide minerals ranged from 67 to 100 %. furthermore with increasing the amount of liquid phase copper recovery increases as well and copper oxide minerals were completely leached out. besides copper ions considerably high ferrous/ferric ion concentrations were achieved in the leach solution. this concentration was
crushing and concentration: the ore obtained from mines are broken down into small piece by jaw crusher and then pulverized. the ore being sulphide ore is concentrated by froth floatation process. pulverized ore is kept in water containing pine oil and the mixture is agitated by passing compressed air.
about 200 years ago the uk was an important world source of copper and tin and there were mines in cornwall and devon. these mines have now closed and today the biggest copper mines are in chile escondida mine and indonesia grasberg mine . these produce many millions of tonnes of copper ore per year. the main ores of copper are sulfides and
sulfide ores such as chalcopyrite \ cufes 2\ are converted to copper by a different method from silicate carbonate or sulfate ores. chalcopyrite also known as copper pyrites and similar sulfide ores are the commonest ores of copper. the ores typically contain low percentages of copper and have to be concentrated before refining e.g. via froth flotation .
copper ores. the main copper sulphide minerals are chalcopyrite cufes2 chalcocite cu2s covellite cus bornite cu5fes4 tetrahedrite cufe 12sb4s13 and enargite cu3ass4 . the largest source of copper is from porphyry ore deposits in which one or a combination of the aforementioned minerals occurs.
for example 1000 kilograms of copper ore containing 300 kilograms of copper metal has a grade of 30 percent. when metal is at a much lower concentration it may be described in terms of parts
leaching oxide ores with sulfuric acid. copper is stripped from the steel cathode plates when it is thick enough. this cathode copper is 99.99% pure. solvent extraction and electrowinning sx-ew production virtually non-existent before the 1960s reached nearly 3.8 million tonnes of copper in 2013.